HomeNewsWhat is The Role of Calcium Carbonate In PVC Materials?

What is The Role of Calcium Carbonate In PVC Materials?

Posted: 2023-08-23

  • Calcium carbonate is an inorganic filler with a high melting point and remains solid at the temperature required for PVC processing. It is dispersed within the PVC system to prevent fusion of PVC particles. When used in small amounts, it reduces the speed of plasticization and delays the plasticization time of the PVC system. However, when used in higher amounts or as surface-active calcium carbonate, it increases lubricant adsorption and enhances friction heat between calcium carbonate particles and processing equipment, thereby accelerating plasticization. Calcium carbonate is commonly employed as a filler in PVC production and processing to incrementally enhance properties while reducing costs. Additionally, it improves dimensional stability, stiffness, heat resistance, and can even enhance toughness when using nano calcium carbonate.

    The Performance Advantages of Plastic Pipes are Significant


    Plastic pipes offer advantages such as corrosion resistance, extended lifespan, and convenient transportation compared to traditional metal or concrete pipes. The industry includes plastic pipes, pipe fittings, valves, inspection wells, and related accessories made of PVC (polyvinyl chloride), PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene), PB (polybutene), ABS, and other polymer materials. Plastic pipes serve as the core material with these components serving as the main ingredients. In contrast to traditional metal and concrete pipes that typically last 20-30 years, plastic pipes have a longer service life of approximately 50 years. They are also lightweight for easy transportation and construction while requiring minimal maintenance. As a result, their use is continuously promoted in various downstream sectors including agriculture, municipal services, building water supply and drainage.

    PVC Tube

    The main types of plastic pipes include PVC pipes, PE pipes, and PPR pipes; each has its own advantages and disadvantages without an absolute substitution relationship. In terms of the proportion of domestic plastic pipe production, PVC pipes have a higher output compared to PE tubes and PPR tubes. Specifically regarding PVC pipes, they are commonly used for calibers below 400mm due to their low price and early promotion. They find wide application in water supply and drainage systems as well as communication networks and power infrastructure—especially in construction drainage projects.
    Compared to other types of pipes, PVC pipes offer several advantages such as a lightweight design, considerations for health and safety, low water flow resistance leading to improved living environments. Additionally, they have a long service life while providing convenience and high performance. When it comes to water supply engineering applications specifically using PVC pipe instead of steel pipe can result in savings ranging from 62% to 75%. Similarly, for drainage engineering projects, replacing cast iron pipe with PVC can lead to savings between 55% and 68%. Therefore, PVC is extensively employed in water transportation systems as well as urban water supply and drainage projects.


    Technology For Modifying PVC Material Filling


    Challenges Faced by PVC Materials

    The production and application of PVC pipes still face numerous challenges despite their wide usage. In terms of core product performance, ordinary PVC pipes are prone to cracking due to a lack of toughness; they also exhibit poor impact resistance and are susceptible to leakage while possessing low anti-aging capabilities. On the other hand, large-diameter high-performance polyvinyl chloride pipelines extensively used in the market require exceptional strength along with robust pressure performance; they should also demonstrate excellent toughness and impact resistance as well as high ring flexibility. From the perspective of deep processing and innovation in plastic products,modifying PVC is currently considered one of the most effective means for achieving enhanced toughness (performance improvement). After years of research exploration conducted by experts in this field,two primary methods for toughening modification have emerged: chemical modification and physical modification.

    Filling Modification Technique

    The physical modification process involves directly blending the modifier or filler into the PVC raw material and then processing it under specific conditions without causing any chemical changes between the modifier and resin. Blending modifiers with PVC is commonly referred to as blend modification, while incorporating fillers is known as filling modification. The key distinction between PVC filling modification and blend modification lies in using cost-effective and easily accessible inorganic fillers that reduce costs while enhancing certain properties. For example, adding a specific amount of calcium carbonate improves product hardness, overall performance, and production cost control.
    From the perspective of enhancing modification effects, surface activation of the modifier establishes an interaction at the interface among polymer, calcium carbonate, and the modifier. This interaction allows for matrix resin yielding and plastic deformation while consuming more impact energy, ultimately achieving toughening objectives. Currently employed modifiers for calcium carbonate include silane coupling agents, stearic acid, and phthalate coupling agents. Among these options, silane-coupled modified calcium carbonate exhibits superior toughening effects on resins, whereas phthalate-coupled modified calcium carbonate demonstrates optimal dispersion within polymers.


    The variation of PVC materials modified with different fillers containing calcium carbonate

    The presence of calcium carbonate in PVC products serves as a structural component, significantly impacting the dimensional stability, hardness, surface gloss, and flatness of the product.

    Heavy calcium carbonate: Exhibits a fine particle size, a narrow particle size distribution, a low oil absorption value, a large specific surface area, and stable product characteristics. It finds extensive application in PVC products such as PVC calendered film. Notably, wet heavy calcium carbonate significantly enhances the covering power, heat resistance, and tensile strength of PVC calendered film compared to light calcium and nano calcium substitutes.

    Light calcium carbonate: The addition of light calcium carbonate can enhance the volume and cost-effectiveness, as well as augment the dimensional stability, hardness, and rigidity of hard PVC products while improving plastic processing performance.

    Nano active calcium carbonate: The utilization of nano active calcium carbonate in the production of PVC pipe has improved the tensile yield strength, elongation at break, longitudinal shrinkage, and other performance indicators of the pipe.

    Calcium Carbonate Grinding Mill


    HGM Ultrafine Grinding Mill

    Capacity: 0.2-45 t/h
    Feed Size: ≤20 mm
    Powder Fineness: 325-3000 mesh
    The entire structure of the calcium carbonate ultrafine mill consists of the main machine, analytical machine (powder separator), pipeline device, blower, finished cyclone separator, jaw crusher, hoist, electromagnetic vibration feeder, electric control motor and so on. The main machine of the calcium carbonate mill is composed of a frame, air inlet volute, shovel knife, grinding roller, grinding ring cover shell and motor. During operation of the main machine in the calcium carbonate mill,the mill roller tightly rolls on the grinding ring under centrifugal force.The material is then sent to the middle of the mill roller and grinding ring by means of a shovel knife.Under grinding pressure action,the material is crushed into powder which is subsequently blown up by a fan and passes through an analysis machine.Material meeting fineness requirements goes through this analysis machine while material failing to meet requirements returns to continue grinding in the chamber.Finally,the material is separated and collected through an analyzer's cyclone separator.Exhaust air with industrial filter cloth isolates exhaust air into powder.


    CLUM Ultrafine Grinding Mill

    Capacity: 1-20 t/h
    Feed Size: <20 mm
    Powder Fineness: 300-3000 mesh
    The CLUM series ultrafine vertical roller grinding machine developed and manufactured by Clirik Machinery Co., Ltd represents a state-of-the-art solution in the field of powder processing. Leveraging years of experience and expertise in  manufacturing ultra-fine powder processing equipment, this machine has been meticulously designed to cater specifically to customers' needs and requirements. Compared to conventional mine grinding processing equipment, the CLUM series offers several significant advantages including effective reduction in secondary grinding which saves time and minimizes energy consumption leading to decreased raw material loss as well as lower electricity costs; thus making it an economically viable choice for businesses.
    Furthermore, the entire machine is constructed using highly wear-resistant steel materials that ensure durability and longevity while minimizing maintenance requirements and associated costs related to part replacement.  Each component has undergone continuous optimization and improvement to enhance reliability while reducing downtime during operation.  A noteworthy feature of the CLUM series is its intelligent processing process which incorporates advanced technology enabling real-time data feedback-based adjustment of various parameters.  This results in efficient material grinding over extended periods without compromising on quality or performance.

    Clirik is a reputable manufacturer of mining machinery and equipment, renowned for their global popularity. If you have any interest in our top-notch equipment, please feel free to contact us using the information provided on this page. Moreover, we boast a team of highly skilled engineers and technicians who are capable of tailoring machinery and equipment to meet your specific requirements, ensuring that they perfectly suit your needs. We eagerly await your call! 
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Calcium Carbonate Grinding Mill

Capacity:0.4-30 T/H
Feeding size:≤20mm
Output Size:150-3000mesh
Calcium Carbonate Grinding Mill is the equipment specializing in producing fine and superfine calcium carbonate powder

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